Enabling Policy Environment

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Moroccan and Ghanaian MSME Resilience in the face of COVID-19
On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH and Allianz RE joined forces to support vulnerable communities in Morocco and Ghana in developing integrated risk management approaches for climate risks. In Morocco , the implemented risk management activities of this Public-Private Partnership are targeted at Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) located in Industrial Zones (IZ). The Ait Melloul Industrial Park was selected as a pilot IZ, because it has an economic value for the...
MSME Resilience in Morocco in the face of COVID-19
MSMEs, significant driver of employment and GDP in Morocco. Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are vital to the Moroccan economy, accounting for more than 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) and representing more than 70% of jobs (African Development Bank Group, 2021). However, challenges precede the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the significant contribution of MSMEs to economic growth and livelihoods in Morocco, their development has been constrained by challenges that precede the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. These challenges include inadequate access to credit and a lack of...
Ghanaian MSME Resilience In the face of COVID-19
MSMEs are one of the most important, yet vulnerable, drivers of development in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This stems from the fact that, while micro-, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) are known to support over 50% of all livelihoods on the continent (both formal and informal), these firms often face a plethora of heterogenous risks that regularly put their survival and continuous operations in jeopardy1 . These risks can range from those faced uniquely at a firm level (such as credit, crime and infrastructural risks) to those endured at a much larger, systemic scale (such as climate...
Sovereign Flood Risk  Pre-Feasibility Study for  Ghana – A Summary
Climate change is manifested in Ghana through extreme weather events, especially flooding. The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) is particularly exposed to these recurrent shocks threatening economic development and human lives. Many public assets and infrastructure are key to flood control and risk mitigation in urban areas, but at the same time can be severely affected by extreme weather events and climate risks themselves. However, in Ghana, most public assets and infrastructure are not insured. This might be due to a relatively low understanding of insurance and the unavailability of...
Developing a Public  Asset Register
Urban flooding is a significant issue in Ghana, particularly in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA). Government agencies and municipalities seek to minimize damage from natural disasters, also for their public assets, through a variety of prevention measures. Nevertheless, a residual risk will always remain. Risk transfer within an Integrated Disaster Risk Management (IDRM) is central. For the development of an insurance product for public infrastructure assets various information about them, such as their value as well as their precise locations and previous flood occurrences for the...
Contingency Planning and Monitoring Tool
Cities experience serious incidents that prevent them from continuing their normal functioning. Such incidences can range from flood or fire to severe outbreaks of epidemics. During such emergencies, the affected cities are saddled with increased risks, mainly when the disaster management team is not well prepared to anticipate, cope with, respond to, and help in the recovery of the affected communities. City authorities have a constitutional responsibility to recover from such incidents in the minimum amount of time, with minimum disruption and at minimum cost. The ability of Metropolitan...
Developing Risk Management Approaches for Climate Risk
Loss and damage from natural disasters have increased substantially over the last couple of decades. In 2020, for example, 980 natural disasters struck the world, causing significant economic loss, destroying major infrastructure, and claiming human lives.1 A single natural disaster can have enormous financial impacts. Some of these damages and losses can be reduced and transferred if appropriate policies and actions are applied. For this reason, Climate and Disaster Risk Management (DRM) has gained importance on international agendas and in many organisations. The main idea behind DRM is to...
Enabling Policy Environment: Exposure Analysis and Modelling
Ghana’s capital Accra is a significant business hub and has a high natural vulnerability to flooding. A combination of unplanned spatial developments, high percentage of paved areas, lack of proper solid waste management, and lack of maintenance for the drainage system result in frequent flooding during (but sometimes even outside) the rainy season. It is expected that climate change further aggravates this. Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) face significant challenges to finance reconstruction work after floods. The negative...
Enabling Policy Environment: Cost-Benefit Analysis for Ecofriendly Adaptation Measures
The ferocious impact of flooding on livelihoods and property demands efficient and ecofriendly adaptation measures. The Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA), Ghana loses a huge amount of resources to flooding every year. Although various interventions and measures have been put in place to ensure that flood risk in GAMA is properly managed, some Metropolitan, Municipal, and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in GAMA face significant challenges to finance reconstruction work after floods. Chronic cash constraints mean that reconstruction of non-critical infrastructure is often delayed or not...
Enabling Policy Environment: Contingency Plan Development
Cities in Ghana, like anywhere else in sub-Saharan Africa, have grown substantially over the past decades. Rapid urbanization has outpaced the capacity of the authorities to plan and sustainably manage cities. Consequently, urban planning lags urban growth. Overall, the sprawling of towns has increased poverty and income inequality and has resulted in the growth of informal settlements and increased disasters. In Accra, flooding, fires, diarrheal disease have become perennial events. In recent years, there has been a high incidence of disasters occurring every year, leaving negative impacts...
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